Hernia refers to a protrusion of an organ through the wall of the cavity containing that organ. It might occur either through the natural openings like inguinal canal or femoral canal or it may occur due to weakness of the sheath or the musculature. Hernia may be congenital, that is, present since birth or acquired, that is, acquired during the lifetime due to certain living or working conditions.
Common hernias seen in practice are:
Commonly occurs in males. Congenital - Present since birth. Acquired- Acquired during the lifetime. The common conditions leading to this type of hernia are-
Occurs below the inguinal ligament and through the Femoral Canal. This commonly occurs in females.
Occurs through the anterior abdominal wall. They are either Congenital (mostly umbilical hernia through the umbilicus) or acquired. The causes for this include:
Hernia which occurs over a scar is called incisional hernia. Causes are
Through ages, the treatment of hernia has gone through various changes and modifications. Significant changes that have taken place in the treatment of hernia are:
Open Surgery with Mesh - This is practiced worldwide.
Laparoscopic surgery (Keyhole surgery) with mesh - This is being done in advanced centres with excellent results.
Most of the hernias can be treated by Laparoscopy. In this procedure, small 3-4 holes are made in the abdomen depending on the site and size of hernia. A telescope is inserted through one of the holes and very specialized laparoscopic instruments through the other holes. Watching on a TV monitor the surgery is carried out and a mesh is placed at the site.
Advantages of Laparoscopy